What is Wine?
Wine is the grape juice that has undergone fermentation. The grapes are crashed and release their sweet juice. The alcoholic fermentation is needed so that the grape-juice is converted to wine.
Parts of the grape
There exist two main types of grapes: white grapes and black grapes. On the inside, these grapes are very similar. The main difference is that the black grapes have a deep pigmentation in their skin and that they contain tanins.
The skin contains tannins that give the feeling of dryness in the mouth. The grape skin of white grapes has a golden hue. The grape skin of white grapes has a golden hue.
The flesh of the grapes is soft and juicy. The colour of the flesh is the same regardless of the grape skin pigmentation. The flesh contains the grape-juice, which is mainly consisted from water, sugars and acids.
In order for the fermentation to start, it is necessary for the yeast to be present. The yeast is microorganisms that convert the sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide. In most cases this procedure is being continued until the yeast consumes all the sugars. The alcohol is contained in the wine that has just been produced and at most cases the carbon dioxide is released in the atmosphere. The level of alcohol in a wine can be calculated as alcohol per vol. : 12% abv means that the 12% of the liquid is alcohol.
Α) Production of White Wines: After the harvest, white grapes are pressed and their juice is being released. After pressing them, they get further pressed to release the rest of their juice. Then, yeast is added in the grape-juice and the fermentation begins in stainless steel tanks or in oak barrels. After fermentation is completed, the wines can be stored in stainless steel tanks orr oak barrels for aging. Next step is bottling.
Β) Production of Rosé and Red Wines: After the harvest, the black grapes are pressed and their juice and skin are put together in a fermentation tank. Yeast is added in the mix of of grape-juice and grape-skins and the fermentation begins. The colour and tannins of the wine are being extracted from the grape–skin because of the good mixing of the grape-skin with the grape-juice. Once fermentation is completed, the red wine that has just been produced is strained from the grape–skins.
For the rosé wine, after only a couple of hours, the juice is strained from the skin. At that point the wine has rosé colour. The fermentation is completed without the grape-skins.
Main Varieties of Grapes
The main varieties or the blends of the varieties that are been used in the production of wine, are a crucial factor that affects the style and the quality of wine. There exist hundreds of varieties of grapes and can be used for the production of wine, but only a small amount has solidified their worldwide use. The main grape varieties are:
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